The Effects of the Presence of Others and Loud Music on Athletic
Kristin L. Zomermaand and Sarah B. Juhl
Whether the presence of people has a greater impact on performance than a distraction such as noise is unknown. This experiment attempted to show that having both noise and people present would have a greater effect than any one distraction alone. In this study participants shot twenty basketball free throws in one of three conditions: two people present, loud background music, or both. The results showed that none of the conditions had an effect on performance but did have an effect on perceived pressure and heart rate. Gender was also shown to have an effect on performance. It is concluded that although performance was not affected by the distraction present, this research does have significance for various activities within society.
The Effect of Personality Information on Attribution of Pro-social
Tammy Lynn Bekker and Rachel Leigh Mulder
The fundamental attribution error describes how an actor's observed behavior is attributed to personality instead of situation; but what happens when described pro-social behavior is inconsistent with given personality traits? Participants read three stories about pro-social behaviors in which personality information of the actor was manipulated (positive, negative, or none), and answered questions about their perception of the actor and attribution of the behavior. Results indicated no significant difference in attribution for behavior, but significant differences in the perception of the actor's personality. Discussion focuses on whether altruistic situations uniquely constrain the fundamental attribution error.
Influence of Persuasion on Litter Control -- Laura
Groen and Gwen Addink
This study tested the effect of different kinds of persuasion (interpersonal, banner, and none) on the amount of litter picked up. The interpersonal and banner conditions promoted the behavior of picking up litter and the control group measured the baseline from which the other conditions were measured. The results show that the differences of interpersonal persuasion was more significant in the amount of litter picked up than the written banner and the control group.
Influence of Music Information Load on Listening Comprehension
-- Rachel Kroll and Karen Langelaar
Research has shown that auditory distraction interferes with reading and listening comprehension. However, little research has explored the effects of different music information loads on listening comprehension. In this study, college students (N=57) heard a speech (which was played simultaneously with music in the low and high information load conditions) and filled out a questionnaire that tested listening comprehension. The highest listening comprehension scores were in the non-music and classical music conditions, while participants in the soft rock condition had the lowest scores. These results indicate a likelihood that the higher level of music information made it more difficult to listen to and comprehend the speech.
Non-Parental Adult Influence on Gender Stereotypes of Kindergartners
Laura Beckering, Tim Covey, and Robin Van Es
Research has demonstrated that television and parents strongly influence children’s gender stereotypes. This study examined whether a non-parental adult could affect the gender stereotypes of young children. Forty- five kindergarten children saw a video in which they heard a story about atypical behavior. In one condition, the storyteller encouraged the atypical behavior; in the second condition the storyteller discouraged the behavior; and in the third condition the storyteller was neutral. Each child then sorted objects into categories based on whether the child believed the object was appropriate for a boy or for a girl. The storytelling condition did not significantly influence the object sorting scores. These results suggest the strength and stability of the gender stereotypes developed in children.
The Effects of Physical Comfort on Personal Space -- Steven
J. Runner and Cynthia M. Sneller
People like to maintain some degree of personal space between themselves and others. This study set out to learn whether people were willing to decrease their personal space in order to increase their physical comfort. Participants were 32 Caucasian males who individually entered a room where a confederate waited. In the experimental condition, the chair closest to the confederate was a comfortable chair while the two chairs which were farther away were uncomfortable metal stools. Participants had to choose to break their personal space to sit in a comfortable chair or maintain their personal space by sitting on the uncomfortable stools. Results indicated that participants were more willing to violate their personal space if it resulted in greater physical comfort.
The Effects of Scent on Interpersonal Attraction -- Angela
B. Kroeze Visser and Casey R. Green
Interpersonal attraction is a complex phenomenon that involves many variables including physical appearance, personality and situational and environmental factors. The affect-evaluation model of attraction (Byrne, 1997) states that situational stimuli influence mood, which in turn impacts attraction toward a stranger. It was hypothesized in this study that participants in a pleasant scent condition would rate videotaped confederates as more attractive than those in a no-scent condition, while those in an unpleasant scent condition would give the lowest ratings. Scent influenced the mood of the participants, but had no effect on attraction ratings. This suggests that the relationship among situation, mood, and attraction is complex and may be mediated by other factors such as cognition.
Effects of Exercise on Reading Comprehension -- Benji
De Jong and Jason Kuiper
Research has shown that some levels of exercise may have an effect on cognitive abilities. If exercise is beneficial, will scores improve with physical exertion? If exercise is strenuous, will reading comprehenion scores begin to decrease? In this study, college students were randomly assigned to different exercise levels and completed a standardized reading comprehension test. The levels of exercise did not significantly influence reading comprehension scores.