Effects of Eyeglasses on
Perceptions of Attractiveness and Authority --
Natalie Draayer & Christina Eggink
Research has demonstrated that children make judgments about their peers based on physical characteristics. Do children make judgments about adults in the same way? This study examined whether the presence of eyeglasses on a male adult would negatively influence children's perceptions of his attractiveness and authority relative to the same man without eyeglasses. Perceptions were measured using an eight-item Likert-style questionnaire. Previous studies had focused only on children's perceptions of peers, not of adults, and this may account for our findings being contrary to past research. A possible shift in recent fashion trends may result in eyeglasses being seen as more stylish and therefore socially acceptable; future research is recommended in this area.
The Effects of Caffeine on Visual Long-Term Memory --
Koedam & Kevin Baas
Many factors influence long-term memory, such as the drug “ecstasy” and naturalistic dieting (Daumann, Fimm, & Willmes, 2003; Green, Jones, & Smith, 2003). This study examined the effects of caffeine on long-term memory. Thirty-one undergraduates were tested on a picture-pair task after drinking either caffeinated or caffeine-free soda. We predicted that caffeine would improve long-term memory as measured by a picture-pairs test. Caffeine was found to have no significant effect on long-term memory, which is consistent with some prior research. In moderate amounts, caffeine does not improve long-term memory.
The Effects of Physical Comfort on Personal Space for Females --
Christopher E. Schreur & Lauren Knight
Personal space is something that all people have to varying degrees. Research by Runner and Sneller (2000) has shown that male students accepted significantly less personal space if they were given the option of a comfortable chair over an uncomfortable chair. Is this also true for women? We replicated the study done by Runner and Sneller with 36 female undergraduates. Results mirrored previous research and indicated that a significant number of participants were willing to sacrifice some personal space for physical comfort. Implications for seat arrangements in a variety of situations are discussed.
Effects of Saliency of Religion on Physical Risk Taking
Holly Retzer & Aaron Van Gelder
Physical risk plays a role in our everyday lives and researchers claim that it is influenced by personality traits or religious beliefs. The present study examined whether the saliency of religious beliefs affects physical risk taking. We predicted that after writing an essay discussing how their religious beliefs affect the way they take care of their body (specific condition), participants would take less physical risk than would those who wrote an essay about their general religious beliefs (general condition) or their typical day at college (irrelevant condition). Results showed that saliency of specific religious beliefs significantly decreased physical risk taking. The results are interpreted as supporting the findings of Engs and Mullen (1999) that religious beliefs have protective effects on risk taking.
of Visual Imagery on Story Recall --
Shelly Groenendyk & Amy Buys
Memory is important for recalling information and is a crucial part of our everyday life. The way in which information is presented to individuals effects what they remember. This study examines whether the amount and type of visual imagery affects children’s ability to recall story details. We predicted that the visual imagery conditions would have significantly higher scores for long-term story recall than the audio condition. In this study, third-grade children were assigned to one of three conditions: audio, audio with black and white pictures, and audio with color pictures. The findings indicated that participants from the black and white condition and color condition had significantly higher story recall scores than those in the audio condition.
The Effects of False Feedback on Self-Efficacy and Perceived Academic
Exemplary work is given much emphasis in American culture. Perception of abilities becomes important for this reason. This study examined whether false feedback would affect participant perception of test scores and their belief in their ability to improve on them. Participants (47 college students) completed a short test. After the test three types of false feedback were given (positive, negative, no feedback), participants took the test again and filled out a short questionnaire. While no significant result was found for perception of participant abilities, participants in the positive feedback condition had significantly higher assessment of their second test scores than did negative feedback participants. These results indicate that manipulation of self-efficacy is possible and that the difficulty of a task is not always as important as one’s perception of his or her abilities to complete it.